Organized systems of planetary astrology began in Babylon in the second century BC though you will find some possible indications in Sumeria in the third century BC. It began as a system of divination of the future and the interpretation of omens. In 525 BC, Egypt was conquered by the Persian Empire and it's extremely likely that Egyptian astrology was influenced by developments in Mesopotamia. The astrologer and astronomer Ptolemy was an important figure in the improvement of horoscopic astrology and his works form the basis of Western astrology.
In India, horoscopic astrology is regarded as a result of the interaction between Indian and Greek culture although there is evidence of some earlier work. Greek was typically spoken in the Indus Valley region following the conquest of Alexander the Great. The earliest surviving documents, like the Yavanajataka or the Brihat-Samhita, can be dated to the second or third century A.D. and one of the earliest works is a translation in Sanskrit of a document originally written in Greek. Astrology and astronomy developed with each other. http://www.psychologytoday.com/
In China, astrology dates back towards the third millennium BC and development is tied to that of astronomy under the rule of the Han Dynasty. Chinese astrology has a close relationship with Chinese philosophy and uses the principles of yin and yang along with other principles which don't exist in Western astrology. Astrology was held in high esteem in China even by sages like Confucius and also the 60 year cycle combines the five components with the 12 animal signs of the zodiac.
During the Renaissance in Europe, a type of scientific astrology was used in which astrologers supplemented their study of horoscopes with genuinely new discoveries about the nature of the universe. Several of the greatest scientists like Galileo and Johannes Kepler themselves practiced astrology. In reply to the new scientific discoveries, the 17th-century astrologers made strenuous efforts to update astrology. However, in between the years 1700 to 1900, astrology was seriously followed only by a few practitioners and many from the techniques and practices of the earlier years had been lost. By the year 1900, there was a resurgence of interest in astrology because of groups like the Theosophists and the order of the Golden Dawn and their interest in esoteric sciences. Even so, astrology was now thought to be a tool for character analysis and psychology and the earlier emphasis on predictions was largely downplayed.