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The Working of Steel Annealing, Heat Treating and Hardening of Carbon and Alloy Steel

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THE WORKING OF STEEL ***

Produced by Robert J. Hall

THE

WORKING OF STEEL

ANNEALING, HEAT TREATING

AND

HARDENING OF CARBON AND ALLOY STEEL

BY

FRED H. COLVIN

Member American Society of Mechanical Engineers and Franklin Institute; Editor of the _American Machinist_, Author of "_Machine Shop Arithmetic_," "_Machine Shop Calculations_," "_American Machinists' Hand Book_."

AND

K. A. JUTHE, M.E.

Chief Engineer, American Metallurgical Corp. Member American Society Mechanical Engineers, American Society Testing Materials, Heat Treatment Association, Etc.

SECOND EDITION

THIRD IMPRESSION

McGRAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY, Inc.

NEW YORK: 370 SEVENTH AVENUE

LONDON: 6 & 8 BOUVERIE ST., E. C. 4

PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION

Advantage has been taken of a reprinting to revise, extensively, the portions of the book relating to the modern science of metallography. Considerable of the matter relating to the influence of chemical composition upon the properties of alloy steels has been rewritten. Furthermore, opportunity has been taken to include some brief notes on methods of physical testing--whereby the metallurgist judges of the excellence of his metal in advance of its actual performance in service.

NEW YORK, N. Y.,

_August, 1922._

PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION

The ever increasing uses of steel in all industries and the necessity of securing the best results with the material used, make a knowledge of the proper working of steel more important than ever before. For it is not alone the quality of the steel itself or the alloys used in its composition, but the proper working or treatment of the steel which determines whether or not the best possible use has been made of it.

With this in mind, the authors have drawn, not only from their own experience but from the best sources available, information as to the most approved methods of working the various kinds of steel now in commercial use. These include low carbon, high carbon and alloy steels of various kinds, and from a variety of industries. The automotive field has done much to develop not only new alloys but efficient methods of working them and has been drawn on liberally so as to show the best practice. The practice in government arsenals on steels used in fire arms is also given.

While not intended as a treatise on steel making or metallurgy in any sense, it has seemed best to include a little information as to the making of different steels and to give considerable general information which it is believed will be helpful to those who desire to become familiar with the most modern methods of working steel.

It is with the hope that this volume, which has endeavored to give due credit to all sources of information, may prove of value to its readers and through them to the industry at large.

_July_, 1921.

THE AUTHORS.

CONTENTS

PREFACE

INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER I. STEEL MAKING II. COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF STEELS III. ALLOYS AND THEIR EFFECT UPON STEEL IV. APPLICATION OF LIBERTY ENGINE MATERIALS TO THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY V. THE FORGING OF STEEL VI. ANNEALING VII. CASE-HARDENING OR SURFACE-CARBURIZING VIII. HEAT TREATMENT OF STEEL IX. HARDENING CARBON STEEL FOR TOOLS X. HIGH SPEED STEEL XI. FURNACES XII. PYROMETRY AND PYROMETERS

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