THE WORKING OF STEEL ***
Produced by Robert J. Hall
WORKING OF STEEL
ANNEALING, HEAT TREATING
HARDENING OF CARBON AND ALLOY STEEL
FRED H. COLVIN
Member American Society of Mechanical Engineers and Franklin Institute; Editor of the _American Machinist_, Author of "_Machine Shop Arithmetic_," "_Machine Shop Calculations_," "_American Machinists' Hand Book_."
K. A. JUTHE, M.E.
Chief Engineer, American Metallurgical Corp. Member American Society Mechanical Engineers, American Society Testing Materials, Heat Treatment Association, Etc.
McGRAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY, Inc.
NEW YORK: 370 SEVENTH AVENUE
LONDON: 6 & 8 BOUVERIE ST., E. C. 4
PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION
Advantage has been taken of a reprinting to revise, extensively, the portions of the book relating to the modern science of metallography. Considerable of the matter relating to the influence of chemical composition upon the properties of alloy steels has been rewritten. Furthermore, opportunity has been taken to include some brief notes on methods of physical testing--whereby the metallurgist judges of the excellence of his metal in advance of its actual performance in service.
NEW YORK, N. Y.,
PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION
The ever increasing uses of steel in all industries and the necessity of securing the best results with the material used, make a knowledge of the proper working of steel more important than ever before. For it is not alone the quality of the steel itself or the alloys used in its composition, but the proper working or treatment of the steel which determines whether or not the best possible use has been made of it.
With this in mind, the authors have drawn, not only from their own experience but from the best sources available, information as to the most approved methods of working the various kinds of steel now in commercial use. These include low carbon, high carbon and alloy steels of various kinds, and from a variety of industries. The automotive field has done much to develop not only new alloys but efficient methods of working them and has been drawn on liberally so as to show the best practice. The practice in government arsenals on steels used in fire arms is also given.
While not intended as a treatise on steel making or metallurgy in any sense, it has seemed best to include a little information as to the making of different steels and to give considerable general information which it is believed will be helpful to those who desire to become familiar with the most modern methods of working steel.
It is with the hope that this volume, which has endeavored to give due credit to all sources of information, may prove of value to its readers and through them to the industry at large.
CHAPTER I. STEEL MAKING II. COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF STEELS III. ALLOYS AND THEIR EFFECT UPON STEEL IV. APPLICATION OF LIBERTY ENGINE MATERIALS TO THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY V. THE FORGING OF STEEL VI. ANNEALING VII. CASE-HARDENING OR SURFACE-CARBURIZING VIII. HEAT TREATMENT OF STEEL IX. HARDENING CARBON STEEL FOR TOOLS X. HIGH SPEED STEEL XI. FURNACES XII. PYROMETRY AND PYROMETERS
THE ABC OF IRON AND STEEL
In spite of all that has been written about iron and steel there are many hazy notions in the minds of many mechanics regarding them. It is not always clear as to just what makes the difference between iron and steel. We know that high-carbon steel makes a better cutting tool than low-carbon steel. And yet carbon alone does not make all the difference because we know that cast iron has more carbon than tool steel and yet it does not make a good cutting tool.
Pig iron or cast iron has from 3 to 5 per cent carbon, while good tool steel rarely has more than 1-1/4 per cent of carbon, yet one is soft and has a coarse grain, while the other has a fine grain and can be hardened by heating and dipping in water. Most of the carbon in cast iron is in a form like graphite, which is almost pure carbon, and is therefore called graphitic carbon. The resemblance can be seen by noting how cast-iron borings blacken the hands just as does graphite, while steel turnings do not have the same effect. The difference is due to the fact that the carbon in steel is not in a graphitic form as well as because it is present in smaller quantities.
In making steel in the old way the cast iron was melted and the carbon and other impurities burned out of it, the melted iron being stirred or "puddled," meanwhile. The resulting puddled iron, also known as wrought iron, is very low in carbon; it is tough, and on being broken appears to be made up of a bundle of long fibers. Then the iron was heated to redness for several days in material containing carbon (charcoal) until it absorbed the desired amount, which made it steel, just as case-hardening iron or steel adds carbon to the outer surface of the metal. The carbon absorbed by the iron does not take on a graphitic form, however, as in the case of cast iron, but enters into a chemical compound with the iron, a hard brittle substance called "cementite" by metallurgists. In fact, the difference between the hard, brittle cementite and the soft, greasy graphite, accounts for many of the differences between steel and gray cast iron. Wrought iron, which has very little carbon of any sort in it, is fairly soft and tough. The properties of wrought iron are the properties of pure iron. As more and more carbon is introduced into the iron, it combines with the iron and distributes itself throughout the metal in extremely small crystals of cementite, and this brittle, hard substance lends more and more hardness and strength to the steel, at the expense of the original toughness of the iron. As more and more carbon is contained in the alloy--for steel is a true alloy--it begins to appear as graphite, and its properties counteract the remaining brittle cementite. Eventually, in gray cast iron, we have properties which would be expected of wrought iron, whose tough metallic texture was shot through with flakes of slippery, weak graphite.