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adverbs of manner and comparison

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CHAPTER 25.  ADVERBS OF MANNER AND ADVERBS USED IN COMPARISONS

1. Adverbs of manner

Adverbs of manner are the largest group of adverbs. Most adverbs of manner are closely related to corresponding adjectives. Although some words can be used as either adjectives or adverbs, in most cases, adverbs of manner are formed by adding ly to the corresponding adjectives.

a. Spelling rules for adding ly

In most cases, ly is simply added to the positive form of the adjective. For example:

Adjective

Adverb of Manner

  bad

  badly

  complete

  completely

  normal

  normally

  surprising

  surprisingly

i. Adjectives ending in ic

However, when the adjective ends in ic, the syllable al is usually added before the ly ending. For example:

Adjective

Adverb of Manner

  dramatic

  dramatically

  scientific

  scientifically

  specific

  specifically

ii. Adjectives ending in le

When the adjective ends in le preceded by a consonant, the final e is usually changed to y, to form the ly ending. For example:

Adjective

Adverb of Manner

  favorable

  favorably

  humble

  humbly

  simple

  simply

When the adjective ends in le preceded by a vowel, in most cases, ly is simply added to the positive form of the adjective. For example:

Adjective

Adverb of Manner

  agile

  agilely

  sole

  solely

However, in the case of the adjective whole, the final e is removed before the ending ly is added:

Adjective

Adverb of Manner

  whole

  wholly

iii. Adjectives ending in ll

When the adjective ends in ll, only y is added. For example:

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