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LEGACY of ASHES

The History of the CIA

TIM WEINER

There are no secrets that time does not reveal.

—Jean Racine, Britannicus (1669)

CONTENTS

AUTHOR'S NOTE xiii

PART ONE – "In the Beginning, We Knew Nothing":

The CIA Under Truman, 1945 to 1953

1 . "INTELLIGENCE MUST BE GLOBAL AND TOTALITARIAN" 3

2 . "THE LOGIC OF FORCE" 9

3 . "FIGHT FIRE WITH FIRE" 20

4 . "THE MOST SECRET THING" 32

5 . "A RICH BLIND MAN" 39

6 . "THEY WERE SUICIDE MISSIONS" 49

7 . "A VAST FIELD OF ILLUSION" 63

PART TWO – "A Strange Kind of Genius":

The CIA Under Eisenhower, 1953 to 1961

8 . "WE HAVE NO PLAN" 73

9 . "CIA'S GREATEST SINGLE TRIUMPH" 81

10 . "BOMB REPEAT BOMB" 93

1 1 . "AND THEN WE'LL HAVE A STORM" 105

12 . "WE RAN IT IN A DIFFERENT WAY" 116

13 . "WISHFUL BLINDNESS" 122

14 . "HAM-HANDED OPERATIONS OF ALL KINDS" 136

15 . "A VERY STRANGE WAR" 142

16 . "HE WAS LYING DOWN AND HE WAS LYING UP" 155

PART THREE – Lost Causes:

The CIA Under Kennedy and Johnson, 1961 to 1968

17 . "NOBODY KNEW WHAT TO DO" 171

18 . "WE HAD ALSO FOOLED OURSELVES" 189

19 . "WE'D BE DELIGHTED TO TRADE THOSE MISSILES" 199

20. "HEY, BOSS, WE DID A GOOD JOB, DIDN'T WE?" 210

21. "I THOUGHT IT WAS A CONSPIRACY" 222

22. "AN OMINOUS DRIFT" 236

23. "MORE COURAGE THAN WISDOM" 244

24. "THE BEGINNING OF A LONG SLIDE DOWNWARDS" 249

25. "WE KNEW THEN THAT WE COULD NOT WIN THE WAR" 265

26. "A POLITICAL H-BOMB" 270

27. "TRACK DOWN THE FOREIGN COMMUNISTS" 285

PART FOUR – "Get Rid of the Clowns":

The CIA Under Nixon and Ford, 1968 to 1977

28 . "WHAT THE HELL DO THOSE CLOWNS DO OUT THERE IN LANGLEY?" 291

29. "USG WANTS A MILITARY SOLUTION" 306

30. "WE ARE GOING TO CATCH A LOT OF HELL" 318

31 . "TO CHANGE THE CONCEPT OF A SECRET SERVICE" 325

32. "A CLASSIC FASCIST IDEAL" 330

33. "THE CIA WOULD BE DESTROYED" 335

34. "SAIGON SIGNING OFF" 340

35. "INEFFECTIVE AND SCARED" 346

PART FIVE – Victory Without Joy: