, a - Acetone, ,
b - Acetoacetic acid, and
c - p- Hydroxyputyric acid. '
Ketosis may be associated with diabetes, mellitus called "Diabetic
ketoacidosis" or it may be due to starvation.., persistent vomiting and high fat and low
, carbohydrate diet.
ROTHERA'S,TEST (Nitroprusside Reaction);
To Sml of urine in a test tube and saturate it with powdered ammonium sulphate.
Add 1m! 5% sodium nitroprusside and mix thoroughly. Now add Iml concentrated aqueous ammonia carefully along the side of the test tube without shaking. A reddish-brown ring
develops at the interface of the two liquids indicating the presence of ketone bodies in the ,
4. TEST FOR BLOOD: ,
Kid.'1ey diseases or any injury to the urinary ,tract may resultin leakage, of blood
in the urine. Blood (Haemoglobin) may occur in the urine as intact corpuscles (RBC) as in
haematuria or tYee in the solution (Haeinoglobinuria). Haemoglobinuria occurs in 'certain
conditions in which the RBCs are haemolysed and haemoglobin is liberated into the plasma.
This haemoglobin is excerted by the kidneys and appears in the urine.
+ ... . .\
Haematuria Can be recognized by the presence of red blood corpuscles under
micros~opic examination of the sediment, obtained on centrifugation of the urine.
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-.- -- -
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1. Benzidine dihydrochloride. 2. Glacial acetic acid.
. To 3ml of fresh Benzidine reagent in a test tube add 2ml of urine
and 1ml of 3% hydrogen peroxide. A blue or green colour will develop if haemoglobin is
present in the urine. .
5. TEST FOR BILE SALTS:
Bile salts appear in the urine of the patients suffering from jaundice.
. Bile salts, if present, lower the surface tension of the fluids.
Take 5ml of urine in a test tube and sprinkle gently a little of finely powdered ~ulphur' "flowers of sulphur" on the surface of the urine. Sulphur will sink down to the bottom of the test tube, indicating the presence bile salts in the urine.
6. TEST FOR BILE PIGMENTS:
The bile pigments Le., bilirubin and biliverdin, are almost entirely excreted through the bile by the lIver but in conditions like obstructive jaundice, where bile ducts get blocked, the bile pigments start appearing in the urine.
GMELIN'S TEST FOR BILE PIGMENTS:
Take 3ml of concentrated HN03 in a test tube. Add 3ml of urine
carefully along the side of the test tube without shaking, so that the tWo fluids do not mix.
. A display of colqurs from yellow, red, violet, blue and green will be noted at
point of contact of the two liquids, which indicates the presence of bile pigments in the urine.
7. TEST FOR BILE SALTS & BILE PIGMENTS:
Take 5ml of urine in a test tube. Shake the tube vigorously and then examine. Appearance of distinct yellow or brownish foam will indicate the presence of both .bile salts and bile pigments.
~UESTioN l ANSWERS
1- What are normal constituents of urine? .
A. Normal constituents are - Water, sodium, potassium,'calcium, chloride, phosphate, sulphate,.
ammonia, urea, uric acid, creatinine, and urobilinogen.
. . 2. What are abnormal constitu~nts of urine?
A. Abnormal constituents are - Glucose and other s.ugars, Proteins, Ketone bodies, b.food,
hemoglobin, bile salts, and bile pigments ..
. 3. Which of the abnormal constituen~s may be present in urine during starvation?
A. Ketone Bodies. .
4. Which of the abnormal constituents you will find in the urine of uncontrolled I;>iabetic
patient? . . .
A. Glucose, Ketone Bodies, and Proteins.
5. What is renal threshold for gluc9se?
A. Renal threshold for glucose is 180 mg/dl.
6. What is glycosuri.a?
A. Glycosuria is a condition in Which glucose is excreted in the urine.
7. What is renal glycosuria? _
A. It is a condition in which glucose can not be. reabsorbed due to' some defect in the renal
tubules itself (congenital or acquired), aQd is ~x9reted 'in the urine. It occurs when renal
thr~shold for glucose is decreased due to 'malfunction in the proximal tubule:; and so glucose,
st;:trts appearing in the urine in spite of the fact that blood glucose remain within normal limits.
8. Which of the sugars can be excreted in 'urine?
A. Glucose - in Diabetes Mellitus.
Fructqse - in Essential Fructsuria.
Galactose - in Galactosemia.