Mood Disorder

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Mood Disorder (Affective Disorder)

-are pervasive alteration in emotion that are manifested by depression mania or both

-during mid 1950�s, there was no treatment for mood disorders

Categories Of Mood Disorder

A. Unipolar Disorder

1.Major Depressive Disorder

2.Dysthymic Behavior

B.Bipolar Disorder

1..Bipolar I

2..Bipolar II



2. Dysthymic Disorder is similar however, they are not as severe and do not include delusions, hallucinations, impaired communication and incoherence

Characterized by at least 2 years of depressed mood for more days than not, with some additional less severe symptoms that do not meet the criteria for a major depressive disorder

Diagnostic Criteria:

Typically involve >2 weeks of sad motor or lack of interest in life activities with at least 4 other symptoms of depression resulting to a significant distress or impaired social, occupational function

� Depressed mood everyday with marked feeling of sadness (dysphoria)

� Markedly diminished interest or pleasure in activities of the day (anhedonia)

� Significant weight loss or weight gain, or decrease or increase in appetite or eating (hyperphagia)

� Insomnia or hyperinsomnia

� Psychomotor agitation or retardation

� Fatigue or loss of energy (anergia)

� Feeling of worthlessness or inappropriate guilt

� Diminished ability to think or concentrate, indecisiveness

� Recurrent thought of death (suicidal ideation); or specific suicidal plan; or attempt

� to diagnose, the above symptoms must be present everyday for 2 wks which result in significant distress or impaired social, occupational function

Psychotic Depression � Major depression plus hallucination or delusion


- persistent sad or depressed mood, loss of interest in things that were once pleasurable with disturbance in sleep, appetite (and weight), energy and concentration

- twice more common in females with poorer prognosis in older adults

Neurobiological Theories

� With high familial and genetic patterns

� Dysregulation of norepinephrine and serotonin (biogenic amine hypothesis)

� Low levels of tryptophan (precursor of serotonin)

� Neuroendocrine: elevated glucocorticoid activity can lead to increase cortisol secretion which causes depression

Psychoanalytical Theories

� Disturbance in interpersonal relations in early childhood

� came from withdrawal of maternal love and support during the oral phase and later experiences of loss. (Freud); anger turned inward