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THE FOUNDATIONS OF PERSONALITY
BY ABRAHAM MYERSON, M.D.
I. THE ORGANIC BASIS OF CHARACTER
II. THE ENVIRONMENTAL BASIS OF CHARACTER
III. MEMORY AND HABIT
IV. STIMULATION, INHIBITION, ORGANIZING ENERGY, CHOICE AND CONSCIOUSNESS
V. HYSTERIA, SUBCONSCIOUSNESS AND FREUDIANISM
VI. EMOTION, INSTINCT, INTELLIGENCE AND WILL
VII. EXCITEMENT, MONOTONY AND INTEREST
VIII. THE SENTIMENTS OF LOVE, FRIENDSHIP, HATE, PITY AND DUTY, COMPENSATION AND ESCAPE
IX. ENERGY RELEASE AND THE EMOTIONS
X. COURAGE, RESIGNATION, SUBLIMATION, PATIENCE, THE WISH AND ANHEDONIA
XI. THE EVOLUTION OF CHARACTER WITH ESPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE GROWTH OF PURPOSE AND PERSONALITY
XII. THE METHODS OF PURPOSE-WORK CHARACTERS
XIII. THE QUALITIES OF THE LEADER AND THE FOLLOWER
XIV. SEX CHARACTERS AND DOMESTICITY
XV. PLAY, RECREATION, HUMOR AND PLEASURE SEEKING
XVI. RELIGIOUS CHARACTERS. DISHARMONY IN CHARACTER
XVII. SOME CHARACTER TYPES
THE FOUNDATIONS OF PERSONALITY
Man's interest in character is founded on an intensely practical need. In whatsoever relationship we deal with our fellows, we base our intercourse largely on our understanding of their characters. The trader asks concerning his customer, "Is he honest?" and the teacher asks about the pupil, "Is he earnest?" The friend bases his friendship on his good opinion of his friend; the foe seeks to know the weak points in the hated one's make-up; and the maiden yearning for her lover whispers to, herself, "Is he true?" Upon our success in reading the character of others, upon our understanding of ourselves hangs a good deal of our life's success or failure.
Because the feelings are in part mirrored on the face and body, the experience of mankind has become crystallized in beliefs, opinions and systems of character reading which are based on physiognomy, shape of head, lines of hand, gait and even the method of dress and the handwriting. Some of these all men believe in, at least in part. For example, every one judges character to a certain extent by facial expression, manner, carriage and dress. A few of the methods used have become organized into specialties, such as the study of the head or phrenology, and the study of the hand or palmistry. All of these systems are really "materialistic" in that they postulate so close a union of mind and body as to make them inseparable.
But there are grave difficulties in the way of character-judging by these methods. Take, for example, the study of the physiognomy as a means to character understanding. All the physiognomists, as well as the average man, look upon the high, wide brow as related to great intelligence. And so it is--sometimes. But it is also found in connection with disease of the brain, as in hydrocephalus, and in old cases of rickets. You may step into hospitals for the feeble-minded or for the insane and find here and there a high, noble brow. Conversely you may attend a scientific convention and find that the finest paper of the meeting will be read not by some Olympian-browed member, but by a man with a low, receding forehead, who nevertheless possesses a high-grade intellect.