Plot Twists and Foreshadowing

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Before I even begin to plan out a chapter for this, I want to acknowledge that I'll probably have a little difficulty here and it might come out confusing...just stick with me!  


1- Immediate chaos - This may happen in the first chapter, before we even get to know the story and character. It's the inciting incident that sends the character into whatever danger/shock/adventure or whatever the rest of the story entails. Bambi's mother dies suddenly. Terrorists attack the President. The Senator's daughter is kidnapped. Prim is selected in the reaping.

2-The REAL problem is revealed - This happens further along in the story, after the writer has misled you to think you know the problem of the book, only to land the REAL problem that has been hidden this whole time. Think Hans secret plan in Frozen (that jerk!). You may think the real problem is that the girl can't get her crush to notice her and that the popular girl is mean to her, but it turns out that her crush is actually a sadistic robot with a plan to take over the world.
The REAL villain is revealed - Often we think we know who the meanest villain is, but then it turns out there is another one, and this one's even worse! Often it can be the original antagonist's boss (so to speak) like Vader and the Emperor.

3 - Escalation of the problem - This is where there is certainly already a problem, but it is suddenly escalated. One alien attacking the town? Make that fifteen now, or even a thousand alien spaceships. The evil witch/mother attacks girls friends with magic, but now she's attacking girl. The stuffed animals are invading, oh but now they can control some of the humans minds also. The first scenario is bad, but you can add and escalation to make the situation even worse. 

4 - Unexpected reversal - A complete turn of events, so drastic it's almost unrealistic. A broke person becomes filthy rich. The nicest person turns mean. One day someone's 13 and the next day they're 30. How do they cope? What goes wrong? How does this help them or hinder them?

5 - Traitors - Ah. Betrayal. This can be the most shocking and saddening plot twist. To make it shocking, though, we have to first think the relationship is not going anywhere, that it's perfectly stable. Sometimes there is foreshadowing to a betrayal, but if we suspect it, then the actual plot twist won't surprise it. Think Cypher in the Matrix. Lando in The Empire Strikes Back. Often minor characters you wouldn't expect.

 6 - Identity realization - This happens often. "Anakin, you're the chosen one." A prince realizes he's actually can change into a lion on command. Vader: "No, I am your father."

7 - Moment of despair - This one might be a little more predictable, since it's used in just about everything, but it can still work. That moment where you think they're going to lose it all (whether it's a war, a galaxy, or a crush) and all is lost, then someone/thing swoops in to save the moment or however you go about it.
~Even better! They actually lose! This will be a big twist, because as I mentioned, the above is often predictable. We have a glimmer of hope and we figure the hero will save the day. What if he doesn't? They're all captured and taken prisoner for five years. The home planet is destroyed. The crush marries the other girl.
~That moment of hope could be reflected in your story with them thinking they'll actually win, and the reader can take a breath, then you snuff that little light of hope out with your evil writer hand.

8 - Secret plan -So may all is lost, they've been captured and are going to spend eternity in this underground prison, when *suddenly* the hero reveals that this has been a part of his plan all along. If you're writing from first person POV, this may be difficult to pull off unless it's a secondary character who has the secret plan.
Contrary to that, the reader could know the hero's secret plan, and *suddenly* when it's time to execute the plan, it's revealed that the villain already knows the whole thing. The hero isn't quite so sneaky as he thinks

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