CliffsAP Biology

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Phillip E. Pack





Phillip E. Pack

About the Author Publisher’s Acknowledgments

Phillip E. Pack taught AP Biology for eleven years. He is Editorial

currently Professor of Biology at Woodbury University in Project Editor: Kelly Dobbs Henthorne

Burbank, California. He teaches courses in biology, human

Acquisitions Editor: Greg Tubach

biology, botany, field botany, environmental studies, and

evolution, and co-teaches various interdisciplinary courses, Composition

including energy and society (with architecture faculty) Proofreader: Jennifer Stanley

and natural history of California and nature writing (with

Wiley Publishing, Inc. Composition Services

English faculty).

Author’s Acknowledgments

To Mary and Megan

CliffsAP® Biology, 3rd Edition Note: If you purchased this book without a cover,

Published by: you should be aware that this book is stolen property.

Wiley Publishing, Inc. It was reported as “unsold and destroyed” to the

111 River Street publisher, and neither the author nor the publisher

has received any payment for this “stripped book.”

Hoboken, NJ 07030-5774

Copyright © 2007 Phillip E. Pack

Published by Wiley, Hoboken, NJ

Published simultaneously in Canada

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Pack, Phillip E.

CliffsAP biology / by Phillip E. Pack. — 3rd ed.

p. cm.

ISBN-13: 978-0-470-09764-9 (pbk.)

ISBN-10: 0-470-09764-7

1. Biology—Examinations—Study guides. 2. Universities and colleges—United States—Entrance examinations—Study guides. 3. Advanced placement programs

(Education)—Study guides. I. Title. II. Title: Cliffs AP biology. III. Title: Cliffs advanced placement biology. IV. Title: Advanced placement biology.

QH316.P34 2007



ISBN: 978-0-470-09764-9

Printed in the United States of America

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of

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