called by some such individual name, who happens to be a man. If, 

then, a man has the theory without the experience, and recognizes 

the universal but does not know the individual included in this, he 

will often fail to cure; for it is the individual that is to be 

cured.) But yet we think that knowledge and understanding belong to 

art rather than to experience, and we suppose artists to be wiser than 

men of experience (which implies that Wisdom depends in all cases 

rather on knowledge); and this because the former know the cause, 

but the latter do not. For men of experience know that the thing is 

so, but do not know why, while the others know the 'why' and the 

cause. Hence we think also that the masterworkers in each craft are 

more honourable and know in a truer sense and are wiser than the 

manual workers, because they know the causes of the things that are 

done (we think the manual workers are like certain lifeless things 

which act indeed, but act without knowing what they do, as fire 

burns,-but while the lifeless things perform each of their functions 

by a natural tendency, the labourers perform them through habit); thus 

we view them as being wiser not in virtue of being able to act, but of 

having the theory for themselves and knowing the causes. And in 

general it is a sign of the man who knows and of the man who does 

not know, that the former can teach, and therefore we think art more 

truly knowledge than experience is; for artists can teach, and men 

of mere experience cannot. 

Again, we do not regard any of the senses as Wisdom; yet surely 

these give the most authoritative knowledge of particulars. But they 

do not tell us the 'why' of anything-e.g. why fire is hot; they only 

say that it is hot. 

At first he who invented any art whatever that went beyond the 

common perceptions of man was naturally admired by men, not only 

because there was something useful in the inventions, but because he 

was thought wise and superior to the rest. But as more arts were 

invented, and some were directed to the necessities of life, others to 

recreation, the inventors of the latter were naturally always regarded 

as wiser than the inventors of the former, because their branches of 

knowledge did not aim at utility. Hence when all such inventions 

were already established, the sciences which do not aim at giving 

pleasure or at the necessities of life were discovered, and first in 

the places where men first began to have leisure. This is why the 

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