Part i. Parts of Speech

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Before you dive into the Writing Section, I'd just like to summarize a brief introduction of English grammar. That way, when I mention these terms in future parts, you'll understand, and perhaps, refer back to this part if need be.

Let's start off with the basics.

Verbs are words that show action or state of being. They also indicate the time the action or state of being occurs: present, past, or future.

Transitive verbs take their action on something⏤the object. If you remove the object from these sentences, they don't make sense:

Intransitive verbs don't need an object; they can take action all by themselves

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Intransitive verbs don't need an object; they can take action all by themselves. No object is necessary in these sentences:

Action verbs are exactly what they sound like: they describe action

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Action verbs are exactly what they sound like: they describe action. Verbs such as run, jump, and swim are action verbs.

Linking verbs describe a state of being. The action isn't so rugged, but more thoughtful, connective, or complicated. Linking verbs aren't about actions as much as they are about connecting other words together.

The verb to be is the basic linking verb. The word is is a form of the verb to be. If I say, "Hannah is nervous," the main purpose of is is to link the word Hannah with the word nervous.

Other linking verbs include seem, appear, look, become, and verbs that describe senses, such as feel and smell.

Participles are verbals that function as adjectives. Present participles end in -ing (singing); past participles usually end in -ed (excited), -t (built), -k (drunk), or -n (eaten). Because participles function as adjectives, they usually appear next to the noun they modify. In the following table, the participles will have a (p) above it and the nouns will have an (n).

 In the following table, the participles will have a (p) above it and the nouns will have an (n)

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