11.8K 3 1

By: Anupama Sharma
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Objectives
1.3 What is Psychology
1.4 What is Education
1.5 What is Educational Psychology
1.6 What are the constituents of Educational Psychology.
1.7 What is the relationship between Education and Psychology?
1.8 Definitions
1.9 What is the difference between Psychology and Educational Psychology?
1.10 Ask Yourself
1.11 Suggested Readings.
Human mind is the richest resource, which has no frontiers. The knowledge of
it in real sense has no parallel. A part of it is processed scientifically and systematized
as a branch of knowledge, namely psychology which is applied in the field of education
i.e. Educational Psychology. It deals with the Art and Science of teaching and learning
education broadly intends to prepare the child for life which is the most valuable
"Education is the handmade of Psychology". Education cannot bring any fruit
without Psychology.
The main objective of this lesson is to equip you with.
􀂾 The meaning of Education and Psychology.
􀂾 The meaning of Educational Psychology.
􀂾 The constituents of Educational Psychology.
􀂾 Relationship between Education and Psychology.
Psychology is a growing subject. It is a developing science extending its
branches in different spheres. Today Psychology has its challenges from the
contemporary world of social sciences. Primary aim of Psychology is to understand
human nature the secondary aim is to serve society.
Psychology occupies a prominent place in the educational theory of today.
Although Psychology cannot formulate the aim of education, it tells us at once whether
an aim is in vain or whether it is possible to achieve. Psychology can tell how far the
aim is realistic and helps us to evaluate our results. It is of utmost value in the process
of achieving the aim i.e. the means of achievement.
Adam says that the task of the teacher is to influence learner, the study of
Psychology will enable the teacher to understand himself and understand the innate
endowment of the child, laws of his development, the evergrowing complexity of the
mind, the effect of environment and development of personality.
Psychology seeks to understand and explain behaviour in terms of mental
and bodily activities. Its Chief problem is how and why we behave, how we think,
know, feel and act and why we think, know, feel and act in the way we do. Psychology
infact is the independent field of study. It has emerged from Philosophy. The word
Psychology was used by Roudolf Goeckle in the year 1590 for the first time.
It is a combination of 2 Greek words Psyche and logos Psyche means soul
and logos means talk about. Thus by derivation Psychology means talk about soul or
the science of soul. During 16th Century the soul was replaced by mind. Later on the
term mind was replaced by consciousness. The functionalists define it as a "Science
of behavior".
Education is the touch stone of the civilization and culture of a country. It is an
integral part and basis of human life and it is as old as human existence and shall
continue function as long as human being lives. In other words we can say that human
life begins with education. The fulfillment of the needs of human life is possible only
through education.
Etymologically the term education originated from latin word educare which
means to bring up or to nourish. It means that the child has to be nourished according
to certain norms. Moreover it is also derived from the latin word educare which
means to lead out and at last derived from the word educatum which means "The act
of teaching or training".
Educational Psychology is nothing but one branch of applied psychology. It is
the study of the psychological aspects of educational studies, which deals with the
teaching and learning process. Credit goes to Russian for introducing the psychological
tendency in Education more and more educational psychology helps in understanding
the capacities potentialities and limitations of the child. It studies both Latin and John.
Latin stands for the mastery over the subject and John stands for the child. Educational
Psychology must know the child as he is. So in the nut shell educational psychology
can be defined as the science of education i.e. a discipline which can be used to
improve the process and product of education in a scientific manner.
Educational-Psychology is a branch of applied psychology and applies the
psychological methods and techniques to the work of teaching. Let us have a brief
look on the following constituents of educational psychology.
WHO LEARNS ? Learners with individual differences this is learning experience.
WHO TEACHES ? The teacher with the knowledge of individual differences in their
abilities, aptitudes, interests and personality qualities.
WHEN TO TEACH ? Keeping the learning capacity of the children in view the
suitably prepared content or content suitably composed by him is to be introduced by
making learners ready to receive it.
WHERE TO LEARN ? Though formally one learns in the classroom, with this
acquired spirit of learning from everything and everywhere learning is to be a relationship
of science of psychology to the theory and practice of education.
The Swiss school master, Pestalozzi, was the Ist to realize that the
educator can draw great advantage from a study of the minds of pupils and
the art of education must be based on an accurate knowledge of mental life.
He wanted to psychologize education and instruction.
"When the rule of the thumb fails the law of psychology can bring fruitful
Crow and Crow: "Education Psychology describes and explains the learning
experiences of an individual from birth through old age:
PEEL, E.A. : Education Psychology is the science of education.
TROW: - "Education Psychology is the study of Psychological aspects of educational
KOLESNIK : "Educational Psychology is the application of the findings and the
theories of psychology in the field of education".
STEPHEN : "Educational Psychology is the systematic study of educational growth
and development".
SKINNER : "Educational Psychology deals with teaching learning process".
Some of the points which throws light on the relationship of Psychology and
education are as below.
1. Psychology and the Learner : Learner is said to be the core and apex of
psychology. Every psychological fact revolves around the learner. Education
psychology studies the behavioural problems of learners and gives solution to
their problems.
2. Psychology and Techniques of Teachings: Methods of teaching should be
simple and psychological so that the learner catch the problem and understand
the topic easily hence psychology gives new methods and techniques to
3. Psychology and Audio -Visual Aids :- Moreover psychology suggests new
aids like Audio-visual aids by adopting which the teacher can motivate the
students easily and effectively and make the difficult concept more clear and
short cut.
4. Psychology and Formulation of Text-Books:- It is rightly said that
"Books are keys to wisdom". Psychology has helped in the planning and
construction of text-books keeping in view the proper development of the
5. Psychology and Role of the Teacher:- Proceeding forward Psychology
also determines the role of the teacher i.e. he should be sympathetic, cooperative,
and he should be a good friend, philosopher and guide to his
students, he should Ist come down to the level of his students then understand
them properly to achieve proper results.
6. Psychology and Time-Table:- It is due to psychological foundations of
education that subjects are kept in the time-table. No two difficult subjects
are taught in successive periods. These are arranged properly in time table
keeping in view their difficulty level.
7. Psychology Measurement and Evaluation:- Psychology introduce new
tools and techniques for measuring the intelligence and personality of the
8. Psychology and Aims of Education:- Aims provides guidelines and directions
to learners and teachers and psychology gives guidelines to education, by
keeping in view the needs and desires of the child and society.
9. Psychology and concept of discipline:- It is difficult to think of educational
process without the concept of discipline. It is Psychology which has helped
education in evolving the concept of discipline in educational institutions.
Psychology has introduced the concept of discipline which grows from the
heart of the children. There is no place for fear in it.
10. Psychology & Co-curricular activities:- The relationships of Psychology
& Education can also be understood in the light of the present status enjoyed
by Co-curricular activities in the educational process. There was a time when
the Co-curricular activities was considered to be the wastage of time but
now-a-days Modern Psychology has changed this notion and these activities
are regarded as a part and parcel of educational process leading to sound
personality of children.
Psychology is an independent discipline whereas Educational
Psychology is a branch of Psychology. Psychology is a positive science
of behaviour whereas Educational Psychology is an applied science which
came into existence as the result of application of knowledge of Psychology
in the field of Education. As a science of behaviour, Psychology develops
theories and principles for studying the behaviour of the organism whereas
Educational Psychology is concerned with the application of the findings
and theories of Psychology in the field of education. For example psychology
gives different theories of learning whereas application of implications of
these learning theories is the job of Educational Psychology.
Psychology being a science of behaviour studies the behaviour of
the organism in general whereas Educational Psychology being an applied
Science studies the behaviour of the individual in relation to the learning
environment. Psychology being a positive Science studies only the behaviour
of an organism as it is whereas Educational Psychology goes
a step ahead. It studies the behaviour of the individual in
its present status and also suggests educational provisions
to modify the behaviour of the individual in desirable manner.
Psychology identifies the innate potentialities, talents and
abilities of the individual whereas Educational Psychology
identifies all these potentialities, talents, abilities etc
and also suggests the educational provisions for the proper
sublimation and optimum possible development of these talents
and abilities.
1. What do you mean by the term Education?
2. What is Educational Psychology?
3. Define the relationship between Education and Psychology ?
4. What do you understand by the term Psychology give its definitions also.
Walia, J.S. (1996): Foundations of Educational Psychology, Paul Publishers,
Jalandhar (Punjab).
Skinner, C.E. (1984) : Essentials of educational psychology, Agra Publishing House,
Sharma, R.N. (2001): Foundations of Educational Psychology, Surya Publications,
Mathur, S.S. (1994): Educational Psychology, Vinod Pustak Mandir, Agra.
Mangal S.K. (1997) : Educational Psychology, Printice-Hall of India Pvt. Ltd.,
New Delhi.
By: Anupama Sharma
2.1 Objectives
2.2 Introduction
2.3 What is Growth and Development
2.4 Definitions
2.5 Characteristics of Growth and Development
2.6 Aspects of Growth & Development.
2.7 Principles of Growth and Development
2.8 Significance of Principles
2.9 Ask Yourself
2.10 Suggested Readings.
To help the students to:-
􀂾 Understand the meaning of Growth & Development.
􀂾 Acquaint students with appropriate characteristics of Growth & Development.
􀂾 Understand various aspects of Growth & Development.
􀂾 Understand various principles of Growth & Development.
As the aim of education is wholesome development of the learner, educational
psychology starts studying the child right from its conception, how the child starts
from a single fertilized cell, how the prenatal development takes place and how the
post natal development in various aspects takes place. A child's constantly changing
behavior, due to interaction with the surroundings, is to be understood by prospective
teachers, so the most potent fact in psychology is that of growth and development.
An understanding of the nature and principles of human growth & development is
very essential for the realization of the aim of education.
Child is a growing being. As he grows he gains height, weight, movements,
perception, emotional control, language, social adjustment, moral judgment and so
on. Growth starts with the increase in the size of a single celled organization, which
multiples and grows into a multi celled organization with distinct organs to carry out
specific functions-physical and physiological functioning. In simple words growth means
increase in size, height and weight. It implies growth of heart, brain muscles and body
in general. It can be easily observed and appraised.
Meaning of Development:
Development is the product of maturation and learning. It is a bigger and
comprehensive term not limited to growing larger or heavier. It means change in
structure, form or shape and improvement in functioning. Development means
enrichment of thinking, reasoning and a clear logical perception by the individual of
interrelationships between the past, present and the future. Thus development can be
defined as a progressive series of changes in an orderly coherent pattern. The term
progressive signifies that the changes are directional leading forward rather than
1. Crow & Crow defines "Growth as Structural and Psychological changes".
2. Frank defines growth as "the multiplication of cells i.e. Growth in height and
weight or it may be changes in the particular aspects of the body or it means
increase and enlargement of the body or some parts of the body".
3. Gesell : "Growth carries a more dynamic connotation; which organically ties
the present with the past and directs it toward the future".
1. Peary defines it as, "Development means the whole sequence of life from
conception to death".
2. Frank defines, "Development may imply the change in organism as a whole".
3. Hurlock defines it "as progressive series of changes in an orderly coherent
pattern". The changes are directional leading forward, rather than backward
and result in new characteristics and new abilities on the part of the individual.
Growth starts from a fertilized egg, which after nourishment turns into a fullfledged
human being. After the birth of child its growth largely depends upon the
enlargement of small cells of the body. The rate of Growth is rapid in early stages i.e.
infancy and childhood, but it slows down after the adolescence age and stops when
maturity has been attained. Growth does not continue throughout life.
Development is a regular and continuous process it goes from womb to tomb
i.e. from birth to death. The changes however small may be continue through out the
life span of an individual. In development the process of first stage influences the next
stage certainly there is time gap between the first development to reach the next
development like physical, moral and social takes place in various dimensions, time
factor plays an important role in the process of development.
1. Physical & Motor Development : Physical development means progressive
development of the various parts of the body and their capacity to function. It
includes the development of internal as well as external body organs of the
Motor Development includes the development of strength, speed & precision
in the use of one's arms, legs and other body muscles.
2. Intellectual Development : Intellectual development includes the development
of intellectual powers like thinking, reasoning, imagination, memory, attention,
intelligence, sensation etc.
3. Emotional Development : In emotional development, the evolution of different
instincts & emotions lead to the formation of sentiments & the progress
sentiments to character.
4. Moral Development: It includes the evolution of moral sense and development
of character.
2.7 Principles of Growth and Development
1. Growth Starts From Conception:
Growth begins with conception process or from a single fertilized cell. It
becomes more and more complex and finally shaped as a human being.
2. Growth and Development are due to Heredity and Environment:
An individual is the product of Heredity and Environment. These two factors
heredity and environment plays very significant role in harmonious personality
development of an individual. The child gets the body structure and metal
abilities due to heredity factors but he develops by using and interacting with
his environment.
3. Development is continuous process.
Development is a continuous process i.e. it is never ending process it remain
continuous throughout the life, so the process of development continues from
birth to death in some or the other form.
4. Growth is Commulative :
As a small organism the child is not able to make specific and finer movements
but as he grows the activity proceeds from general to specific, this is due to
the commulativeness of Growth Process.
5. Development occurs at different rates:
Development occurs at different rates for different parts of the body i.e.
different objects of physical and mental traits develop of their own rates and
reach maturity at different times. Growth proceeds more rapidly during earliest
and adolescence and later this speed decreases.
6. Growth is spontaneous:
Growth is spontaneous in nature i.e. it occurs spontaneously child learns new
words and things with amusement and without being aware of the growth to
which it leads.
7. Development is progressive in nature:-
The process of development is slow but it is regular and continuous. It means
that changes in one stage influence the other stage also.
8. Development is predictable:
Although there are individual differences in the rate of growth, but the growth
rate tends to remain constant due to uniformity of pattern of development. We
can safely predict the physical and mental development of the child on the
basis of aptitude or intelligence tests given in earlier years.
9. Development occurs as a whole:
Most important characteristic of Growth and Development is that individual
growth and develops as a whole his physical, intellectual, emotional social
and other types of development are interdependent.
10. Individual differences in development remain constant:
It is to be noted that development process remains same for all children but
each child follows his own time schedule of growth. One child may learn a
task earlier than the other.
The knowledge of the principles of Growth and Development is very important
and useful for parents, teachers and educationists. Some of the uses of the principles
of Growth & Development are as below:-
1. It helps the teacher in adjusting school programmes, procedures and practices
according to the level of development of the child.
2. It helps parents and teachers in treating their children or pupils sympathetically
and solving their problems in a realistic way.
3. It helps the teacher in providing the proper guidance programmes.
4. It helps the parents and the teachers in knowing and creating importance of
healthy and good environment.
2.9 Ask Yourself
1. Define the term growth and development.
2. What are the characteristics of Growth & Development?
3. Discuss various principles affecting Growth and Development.
4. Define various aspects of Growth & Development.
5. What is the significance of the principles of Growth & Development?
2.10 Suggested Readings:
Walia, J.S. (1996): Foundations of Educational Psychology, Paul Publishers,
Jalandhar (Punjab).
Skinner, C.E. (1984) : Essentials of educational psychology, Agra Publishing House,
Sharma, R.N. (2001): Foundations of Educational Psychology, Surya Publications,
Mathur, S.S. (1994): Educational Psychology, Vinod Pustak Mandir, Agra.
Mangal S.K. (1997) : Educational Psychology, Printice-Hall