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Abrmal Urine Biochemistry Tests

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The abnonnal or pathological constituents found in th~ urine are:

1. Proteins, . .

2. Glucose,

3. Ketone bodies,

4. -Blood, .

5. Bile salts,

6, Bile pigments, and 7. Fats.



. A .nun'lber of proteins may appear in the urine in a variety 'of pathological

conditions. This may occur either d~e to: . .

a - in the penneability of the glomerular capillaries, as

. in'n~phrotic syndrome, or I .,

b - Damage to the capillary membrane, a condition called .

glomeI:Ulonephritis. .

. The proteins detectedin the urine under pathological conditions are:

. a - Albumin, . .

b .: qlobulins,

c - Haemoglobin, . .

d - Myoglobin, and

. e - N{)n-blood proteins such .as Bence-Jones Proteins.

The tenn "Proteinuria" is better name given to the cpndition in which a heat

'~gulable'protein is found in the urine, it may be albumin or globulin. The commonly used

clinical tenn "Albuminuria" instead' of "Proteinuria" is. i~correct in view of the fact that

. alblimin and globulins both are present in abnonnal urine though albumin is generally in

excess. of globulins.. .. .

" /



Fill 2/3 of a test tube with urine. Heat the upper 1/3 to boil. Appearance

. of turbidity or a flocculent precipitate indicates the presence of either albumin or earthy./

phosphates. ... . . .'

. . Add 6 drops of 5% acetic acid to it. The phosphates, if present, will get dissolved .

and if the turbidity persists even after the addition of acetic acid, it indicates the presence of .proteins (albumin and globulins).


I!. I

a) Heat coagulation and addition of acetic acid" is a very sensitiv~ test and it can detect the presence of proteins at a concentration CjS low as 2-3mg/dL in urine. .




b) Bence-Jones Proteins are abnormal proteins found jn.:the urine of patients suffering from multiple myeloma. These proteins do not give a positive heat coagulation test. . Ajldcculant precipitate appears, on heating a urine containing Bence-jones proteins, around 5(f-6(fC and it disappears at.lOO°C. It re-appears on cooling the urine.

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