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Mood Disorder

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MOOD DISORDER

Mood Disorder (Affective Disorder)

-are pervasive alteration in emotion that are manifested by depression mania or both

-during mid 1950�s, there was no treatment for mood disorders

Categories Of Mood Disorder

A. Unipolar Disorder

1.Major Depressive Disorder

2.Dysthymic Behavior

B.Bipolar Disorder

1..Bipolar I

2..Bipolar II

A. UNIPOLAR DISORDER

1. MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER

2. Dysthymic Disorder is similar however, they are not as severe and do not include delusions, hallucinations, impaired communication and incoherence

Characterized by at least 2 years of depressed mood for more days than not, with some additional less severe symptoms that do not meet the criteria for a major depressive disorder

Diagnostic Criteria:

Typically involve >2 weeks of sad motor or lack of interest in life activities with at least 4 other symptoms of depression resulting to a significant distress or impaired social, occupational function

� Depressed mood everyday with marked feeling of sadness (dysphoria)

� Markedly diminished interest or pleasure in activities of the day (anhedonia)

� Significant weight loss or weight gain, or decrease or increase in appetite or eating (hyperphagia)

� Insomnia or hyperinsomnia

� Psychomotor agitation or retardation

� Fatigue or loss of energy (anergia)

� Feeling of worthlessness or inappropriate guilt

� Diminished ability to think or concentrate, indecisiveness

� Recurrent thought of death (suicidal ideation); or specific suicidal plan; or attempt

� to diagnose, the above symptoms must be present everyday for 2 wks which result in significant distress or impaired social, occupational function

Psychotic Depression � Major depression plus hallucination or delusion

MAJOR DEPRESSION

- persistent sad or depressed mood, loss of interest in things that were once pleasurable with disturbance in sleep, appetite (and weight), energy and concentration

- twice more common in females with poorer prognosis in older adults

Neurobiological Theories

� With high familial and genetic patterns

� Dysregulation of norepinephrine and serotonin (biogenic amine hypothesis)

� Low levels of tryptophan (precursor of serotonin)

� Neuroendocrine: elevated glucocorticoid activity can lead to increase cortisol secretion which causes depression

Psychoanalytical Theories

� Disturbance in interpersonal relations in early childhood

� came from withdrawal of maternal love and support during the oral phase and later experiences of loss. (Freud); anger turned inward

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