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CliffsAP Biology

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CliffsAP® 

Biology

 

3RD EDITION

 

by 

Phillip E. Pack

 

CliffsAP® 

Biology

 

3RD EDITION

 

by 

Phillip E. Pack

 

About the Author Publisher’s Acknowledgments

Phillip E. Pack taught AP Biology for eleven years. He is Editorial  

currently Professor of Biology at Woodbury University in Project Editor: Kelly Dobbs Henthorne  

Burbank, California. He teaches courses in biology, human

Acquisitions Editor: Greg Tubach

biology, botany, field botany, environmental studies, and  

evolution, and co-teaches various interdisciplinary courses, Composition  

including energy and society (with architecture faculty) Proofreader: Jennifer Stanley  

and natural history of California and nature writing (with

Wiley Publishing, Inc. Composition Services

English faculty).

Author’s Acknowledgments

To Mary and Megan

CliffsAP® Biology, 3rd Edition Note: If you purchased this book without a cover,  

Published by: you should be aware that this book is stolen property.  

Wiley Publishing, Inc. It was reported as “unsold and destroyed” to the  

111 River Street publisher, and neither the author nor the publisher

has received any payment for this “stripped book.”

Hoboken, NJ 07030-5774  

www.wiley.com

Copyright © 2007 Phillip E. Pack

Published by Wiley, Hoboken, NJ  

Published simultaneously in Canada

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Pack, Phillip E.  

CliffsAP biology / by Phillip E. Pack. — 3rd ed.

p. cm. 

ISBN-13: 978-0-470-09764-9 (pbk.) 

ISBN-10: 0-470-09764-7 

1. Biology—Examinations—Study guides. 2. Universities and colleges—United States—Entrance examinations—Study guides. 3. Advanced placement programs  

(Education)—Study guides. I. Title. II. Title: Cliffs AP biology. III. Title: Cliffs advanced placement biology. IV. Title: Advanced placement biology.  

QH316.P34 2007  

570.76—dc22

2007015552

ISBN: 978-0-470-09764-9

Printed in the United States of America

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of  

the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923,  

978-750-8400, fax 978-646-8600, or on the web at www.copyright.com. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Legal Department,  

Wiley Publishing, Inc., 10475 Crosspoint Blvd., Indianapolis, IN 46256, 317-572-3447, fax 317-572-4355, or online at http://www.wiley.com/go/permissions.

THE PUBLISHER AND THE AUTHOR MAKE NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES WITH RESPECT TO THE ACCURACY OR COMPLETENESS OF THE CONTENTS OF THIS WORK AND SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION WARRANTIES  

OF FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. NO WARRANTY MAY BE CREATED OR EXTENDED BY SALES OR PROMOTIONAL MATERIALS.  

THE ADVICE AND STRATEGIES CONTAINED HEREIN MAY NOT BE SUITABLE FOR EVERY SITUATION. THIS WORK IS SOLD WITH THE UNDERSTANDING THAT THE PUBLISHER IS NOT ENGAGED IN RENDERING LEGAL, ACCOUNTING, OR OTHER PROFESSIONAL SERVICES. IF  

PROFESSIONAL ASSISTANCE IS REQUIRED, THE SERVICES OF A COMPETENT PROFESSIONAL PERSON SHOULD BE SOUGHT. NEITHER THE  

PUBLISHER NOR THE AUTHOR SHALL BE LIABLE FOR DAMAGES ARISING HEREFROM. THE FACT THAT AN ORGANIZATION OR WEBSITE IS  

REFERRED TO IN THIS WORK AS A CITATION AND/OR A POTENTIAL SOURCE OF FURTHER INFORMATION DOES NOT MEAN THAT THE AUTHOR OR THE PUBLISHER ENDORSES THE INFORMATION THE ORGANIZATION OR WEBSITE MAY PROVIDE OR RECOMMENDATIONS IT  

MAY MAKE. FURTHER, READERS SHOULD BE AWARE THAT INTERNET WEBSITES LISTED IN THIS WORK MAY HAVE CHANGED OR DISAPPEARED BETWEEN WHEN THIS WORK WAS WRITTEN AND WHEN IT IS READ.

Trademarks: Wiley, the Wiley Publishing logo, CliffsNotes, the CliffsNotes logo, Cliffs, CliffsAP, CliffsComplete, CliffsQuickReview, CliffsStudySolver,  

CliffsTestPrep, CliffsNote-a-Day, cliffsnotes.com, and all related trademarks, logos, and trade dress are trademarks or registered trademarks of John Wiley & Sons,  

Inc. and/or its affiliates. AP is a registered trademark of the College Board, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product. All

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