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San xuat gia tri thang du

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Truong hop trao doi khong ngang gia: neu hang hoa duoc ban cao hon gia tri, thi so loi anh ta nhan duoc khi la nguoi ban cung chinh so tien anh ta se mat di khi la nguoi mua, rot cuoc anh ta se khong duoc loi them gi ca. Con neu mua hang hoa thap hon gia tri, thi tinh hinh cung tuong tu nhu tren. So loi anh ta nhan duoc khi la nguoi mua se mat di khi la nguoi ban. Gia dinh co mot so nguoi nho manh khoe ma chuyen mua duoc re ban dat, thi nhu C.Mac noi, dieu do chi co the giai thich duoc su lam giau cua nhung thuong nhan ca biet chu khong the giai thich duoc su lam giau cua toan bo giai cap cac nha tu ban. Boi vi tong so gia tri truoc luc trao doi cung nhu trong va sau khi trao doi khong thay doi, ma chi co phan gia tri nam trong tay moi ben trao doi la thay doi.

Nhu vay, neu nguoi ta trao doi nhung vat ngang gia, thi khong sinh ra gia tri thang du, va neu nguoi ta trao doi nhung vat khong ngang gia thi cung khong sinh ra gia tri thang du. Luu thong khong tao ra gia tri moi.

Nhung neu nguoi co tien khong tiep xuc gi voi luu thong, tuc la dung ngoai luu thong, thi cung khong the lam cho tien cua minh lon len duoc.

"Vay la tu ban khong the xuat hien tu luu thong va cung khong the xuat hien o ben ngoai luu thong. No phai xuat hien trong luu thong va dong thoi khong phai trong luu thong"1. Do la mau thuan cua cong thuc chung cua tu ban.

3. Hang hoa suc lao dong

Su chuyen hoa cua tien thanh tu ban, khong the phat sinh tu ban than so tien do. Vi trong viec mua ban hang hoa, tien chi la phuong tien luu thong de thuc hien gia ca hang hoa, nen truoc sau gia tri cua no van khong thay doi. Su chuyen hoa do phai xay ra o hang hoa trong qua trinh van dong cua tu ban. Nhung su chuyen hoa do khong xay ra o gia tri trao doi cua hang hoa, vi trong trao doi nguoi ta trao doi nhung vat ngang gia, ma chi co the o gia tri su dung cua hang hoa. Do do, hang hoa do khong the la hang hoa thong thuong, no phai la mot thu hang hoa dac biet, ma gia tri su dung cua no co dac tinh la nguon goc sinh ra gia tri, hon nua sinh ra mot gia tri lon hon gia tri cua ban than no. Thu hang hoa dac biet do la suc lao dong ma nha tu ban da tim thay tren thi truong. Suc lao dong bien thanh hang hoa la dieu kien quyet dinh de tien bien thanh tu ban.

a) Suc lao dong va nhung dieu kien bien suc lao dong thanh hang hoa

C.Mac viet: "suc lao dong hay nang luc lao dong la toan bo nhung nang luc the chat va tinh than ton tai trong mot co the, trong mot con nguoi dang song, va duoc nguoi do dem ra van dung moi khi san xuat ra mot gia tri su dung nao do"2.

Trong bat cu xa hoi nao, suc lao dong cung la dieu kien co ban cua san xuat. Nhung suc lao dong khong phai bao gio cung la hang hoa, no chi bien thanh hang hoa trong nhung dieu kien lich su nhat dinh, nhung dieu kien do la:

Thu nhat, nguoi lao dong phai duoc tu do ve than the. Suc lao dong chi xuat hien tren thi truong voi tu cach la hang hoa, neu no do ban than nguoi co suc lao dong dua ra ban. Vay nguoi lao dong phai duoc tu do ve than the, co quyen so huu suc lao dong cua minh, thi moi dem ban suc lao dong duoc. Trong cac xa hoi no le va phong kien, nguoi no le va nong no khong the ban suc lao dong duoc, vi ban than ho thuoc so huu cua chu no hay chua phong kien. Do do viec bien suc lao dong thanh hang hoa doi hoi phai thu tieu che do no le va nong no.

Thu hai, nguoi lao dong bi tuoc doat het tu lieu san xuat. Neu chi co dieu kien nguoi lao dong duoc tu do ve than the thi chua du dieu kien de bien suc lao dong thanh hang hoa, vi neu nguoi lao dong duoc tu do ve than the ma lai co tu lieu san xuat thi ho se san xuat ra hang hoa va ban hang hoa do minh san xuat ra chu khong ban suc lao dong. Vi vay, muon bien suc lao dong thanh hang hoa, nguoi lao dong phai la nguoi

1. C.Mac va Ph.Angghen: Toan tap, Nxb. Chinh tri quoc gia, Ha Noi, 1993, t.23, tr.249.

2. Sdd, tr. 251.

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