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lua chon may xuc mot gau cho thi cong

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13.Phuong phap lua chon may xuc mot gau cho thi cong? Phan tich ro cac yeu to can quan tam khi lua chon may xuc mot gau? Nang suat may xuc mot gau, anh huong cua viec lua chon may den nang suat va chat luong thi cong?

. To chuc thi cong may dao mot gau 

+ Chon loai may dao mot gau 

Viec chon loai may dao mot gau cho thi cong la nhiem vu quan trong cua nguoi can bo phu trach to chuc thi cong. Nang suat co cao, hieu suat su dung co tot hay khong mot phan la do nguoi can bo ky thuat quan ly su dung may nam vung tinh nang ky thuat va dieu kien su dung may den muc do nao. Doi voi viec chon lua may dao mot gau, ta can quan tam den cac yeu to: khoi luong cong tac, dang cong tac, loai dat, dieu kien chuyen cho, thoi han thi cong. Tuy tung dieu kien cu the ma chung ta lua chon thiet bi cong tac lap tren may dao mot gau cho hop ly. Vi du: 

- May dao gau thuan co ket cau bo cong tac chac chan, luc dao lon, dung co loi khi dao dat va do vao xe van tai de cho di xa. May dao gau thuan chi lam viec tot khi nen dat noi dung may kho rao. May dao gau thuan dao duoc nhung ho sau va rong, theo nhieu tang, moi tang co nhieu ranh dao. 

- May dao gau day co can dai nen co the do dat tu ho dao di kha xa. No dung tu tren cao de dao nhung ho sau (toi 10 hoac 20 met) va dao dat o nhung noi co nuoc nhu vet bun v.v... So voi may dao gau thuan thi may dao gau day co nang suat thap hon (neu cung mot dung tich gau) vi kho huong cho gau do dung vao phuong tien van chuyen, thao tac de xuc day gau kho khan hon may dao gau thuan. Dung may dao gau day dao roi do thanh dong hoac do truc tiep vao noi can dap thi nang suat cao. 

- May dao gau nguoc chi dao duoc nhung ho nong (may dao co dung tich gau 0,5m3 thi chieu sau dao toi da la 5,5 met). Dung may dao gau nguoc de dao muong mang nho, dao ranh dat duong ong, duong day cap dien v.v... Voi nhung cong viec nhu tren nguoi ta thuong chon may dao gau nguoc co dung tich gau q=0,15; 0,25, 0,35; hoac 0,50 m3. Cung co the dung may dao nhieu gau. 

- Khi dao nhung ho sau va dat tuong doi mem, neu su dung may dao gau thuan thuong phai dao them nhung con duong len xuong cho ban than may dao va cac phuong tien van tai. Khoi luong dat dao cua cong viec nay cung kha lon, cho nen trong truong hop nay ta co the thi cong bang may dao gau day lai kinh te hon. 

Trong cac truong hop thi cong sau day nen lua chon may dao banh xich: 

- Khoi luong thi cong dat tap trung, khong can di chuyen may nhieu; 

- Thi cong tren nen dat yeu (may on dinh hon khi lam viec va di chuyen); 

- Khi thi cong dat da nham (banh lop se mon nhanh hon). 

Nen lua chon may dao banh lop khi: 

- Thi cong tren nen dat co kha nang chiu tai cao; 

- Khoi luong thi cong khong tap trung; 

- Thi cong trong thanh pho co yeu cau thuong xuyen di chuyen may. 

Theo kinh nghiem viec chon may xuc con dua vao khoi luong dat thi cong. Khi khoi luong dat dao lon thi nen dung loai may dao co dung tich gau lon. (khi lua chon may co the tham khao cac bang chon trong tai lieu). 

+ Cac so do thi cong may dao mot gau 

Tuy theo dia hinh thi cong ma ta co cac so do dao thich ung. 

Doi voi may dao gau thuan thuong co cac cach dao sau: 

- Dao doc do ben: (hinh 3.7) khi duong truc di chuyen cua may dao song song voi duong di chuyen cua xe van tai. Cach dao nay bao dam xe dung lay dat va may dao lam viec khong phai ngung tre. Duong di chuyen cua may dao va o to co the tren cung do cao hoac may dao co the dung thap hon o to mot it. 

- Dao doc do sau (hinh 3.8): cach dao nay doi voi nhung khu vuc truong doi doc theo huong chay cua xe van tai, hoac nhung khu vuc tuong doi doc theo huong chay cua xe van tai, hoac nhung khu vuc thanh tang, thanh bac. De giai quyet goc quay do cua may dao qua lon (toi 1700) thi ta co the mo rong khoang dao cho xe o to vao duoc de dang dong thoi giam thoi gian chu ky lam viec cua may dao. 

- Dao ngang (hinh 3.9): cach dao nay thuong ap dung khi khai thac dat da nui, khai thac than lo thien. Ta thay hinh thuc dao nay cac phuong tien van chuyen thuong dung lay dat gan vuong goc voi truc di chuyen cua may dao. Trong truong hop khoang dao sau vuot qua chieu cao cua may dao thi ta phai chia thanh ranh (tang) dao. 

Doi voi may dao gau nguoc 

Dung may dao gau nguoc de dao nhung ho mong, ranh dao, muong dao v.v... Voi khoi luong dao dat khong lon, tinh chat cong viec khong phuc tap, loai dat khong ran lam, dung tich gau xuc thuong nho; ta dung may dao gau nguoc la tien loi va kinh te khi dao va do dat sang ben canh ho dao. Khi ay may dao dung dao doc voi ranh dao va do dat sang hai ben ranh dao hoac mot ben ranh dao (hinh 3.10).

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