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Cau tao va nguyen li lam viec cua cac loai may nang don gian.

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2. Cau tao va nguyen li lam viec cua cac loai may nang don gian.

1. Kich

a. Kich thanh rang co cau tao don gian, hieu suat tuong doi cao, duoc che tao voi suc nang tu 25tan, chieu cao nang 0,30,7m. Tren hinh 1.1 la cau tao cua mot kich thanh rang loai thong dung. Momen tren truc tay quay do nguoi su dung tao ra duoc truyen thong qua mot cap banh rang tru den banh rang dan cuoi cung. Banh rang nay luon an khop voi thanh rang 2 co kha nang truot len xuong nho dan huong cua cac bac truot bo tri tren vo kich co dinh 1. De co ket cau nho gon, cac cap banh rang co ty so truyen tu 4 den 6, banh dan co so rang nho, thuong tu 4 den 6 rang.

1- Than kich; 2- Thanh rang; 3- Dau kich; 4- Ban nang phu; 5- Tay quay; 6- Bo truyen banh rang; 7- Truc cua tay quay; 8- Banh rang lien dia ma sat ben trai; 9- Banh coc; 10- Con coc; 11- Dia ma sat ben phai.

Muon nang vat, quay tay quay thuan chieu, dia ma sat ben phai 11 va banh rang lien dia ma sat ben trai 8 ep chat vao banh coc 9 tao thanh mot khoi. Nho ma sat ma momen duoc truyen den banh rang dan, day thanh rang len. Vat giu o do cao mong muon nho coc ham 10. Khi ha vat, chi can quay tay quay theo chieu ha, khi nay truc 7 dich chuyen sang phai tach dia ma sat 11 khoi banh coc 9 va vat nang cung thanh rang ha xuong do trong luong ban than cua chung. Vat nang tiep tuc ha voi van toc tang dan cho toi khi van toc goc cua banh rang 8 bang van toc goc cua truc 7 do ta quay tay quay thi truc 7 ngung dich chuyen sang phai va khi banh coc quay nhanh hon truc 7 thi no lai ep banh coc 9 vao dia 11 lam giam toc do ha vat cho den khi banh rang 8 quay cham hon truc 7 thi no lai tach khoi banh coc 9 va lai lap lai qua trinh tren.

Loai nay cho phep khong che toc do ha vat rat tot. O nhieu kich thanh rang, nguoi ta con bo tri them ban nang phu 4 dung de nang hang duoi thap. Do luc tac dung lech tam nen suc nang giam xuong con mot nua.

b. Kich vit:

Co chieu cao nang thuong nho hon kich thanh rang va co suc nang den 20 tan va chieu cao nang 0,20,4m. Kich vit lam viec theo nguyen tac truyen dong dai oc.

Cau tao kich vit bao gom dau kich 3 dong vai tro nhu mot o chan co the quay tron duoc. Truc ren vit 2 duoc truyen dong nho co cau banh coc hai chieu co banh coc kep tren truc vit (hinh 1.2). Khi tao chuyen dong cho tay don, truc vit se quay va chuyen dong tinh tien doc than kich. Ren thuong dung cho vit la ren co dang hinh thang va loi dung tinh tu ham cua ren de ham giu vat nang voi goc nang cua ren la 4050.

c. Kich thuy luc co chuyen dong em nhu kich vit nhung co hieu suat cao hon va duoc che tao voi suc nang lon, co the dat den 750t, chieu cao nang 0,150,7m. Nguyen tac lam viec cua kich la ap luc dau tu bom duoc truyen den xy lanh cong tac de nang vat. Cau tao kich gom hai bo phan chinh: bom va pittong-xy lanh cong tac. Vat duoc nang len khi chat long vao xy lanh cua kich va duoc ha xuong nho chat long di qua van xa. Dieu chinh toc do dong chay cung tuc la dieu chinh toc do ha vat bang van xa. Chat long trong kich la dau khoang hoac nuoc pha glyxerin co ti le 2:1. Day chat long vao kich bang bom tay hoac bom co dong co dan dong. Bom gan truc tiep voi kich hoac noi vao kich qua he thong ong dan. Mot bom co the dan dong cho mot hoac nhieu kich .

Hinh 1.3 gioi thieu so do kich thuy luc lien voi bom, dan dong tay. Nguoi dieu khien day tay lac 8 ve ben trai, lam cho pittong bom 1 chuyen dong tu trai sang phai, dau tu thung chua 2 qua van mot chieu 3 vao trong xylanh bom 9, luc nay van ap luc 4 duoc dong lai. Khi day tay lac 8 ve phia phai, pittong bom 1 chuyen dong tu phai qua trai, day dau tu xylanh bom 9 qua van ap luc 4 vao xylanh kich 6 day pittong 5 len tren, luc nay van mot chieu 3 duoc dong lai. Vat nang duoc nang len mot cach gian tiep.

doan theo nhip lac cua tay don bom. Khi muon ha vat, mo van 7 va duoi tac dung cua trong luong vat nang, dau kich se duoc ha xuong. Chat long tro ve binh chua qua van 7.

Kich thuy luc:1- Pittong bom; 2- Thung dau; 3- Van mot chieu; 4- Van ap luc; 5- Pittong chinh; 6- Xylanh kich; 7- Van thai; 8- Tay lac; 9- Xi lanh bom.

2. Toi

a. Toi dan dong tay (hinh 1.4) duoc su dung khi luc keo nho (580kN) va dung luong cap tren tang nho (50200m). Cau tao gom cap (doi khi dung xich) 1, duoc cuon tren tang 2; bo truyen 3, co phanh 4 va tay quay 5. Vat nang Q duoc lien ket voi cap thong qua thiet bi treo vat 6.

b. Toi dan dong bang may. Toi duoc dan dong bang may thuong su dung dong co dien. Toi duoc gan tren khung be de de dang van chuyen, cung nhu dinh vi chong luc keo ngang hoac nghieng. Toi may hay duoc phoi hop voi to hop rong roc (palang cap) de keo hoac nang duoc vat rat nang. Luong cap chua tren toi rat lon, co the den 200400m. Co nhieu loai toi khac nhau nhu: toi mot tang quay hai chieu, toi nhieu toc do, toi ma sat. Tren hinh 1.5 trinh bay mot kieu toi mot tang quay hai chieu dan dong bang dong co dien. Toi nay duoc dung nhieu trong xay dung va o cac bai lap rap. Dong co dien duoc noi voi hop giam toc bang khop noi dan hoi 6. Vanh ngoai cua nua khop noi ben phia hop giam toc dong thoi la banh phanh. Khoi dien tro 8 dung de khoi dong cho dong co day cuon 7 voi 3 den 4 nac dien tro chuyen doi nho hop dieu khien can gat 4.

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