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adverbs of manner and comparison

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CHAPTER 25.  ADVERBS OF MANNER AND ADVERBS USED IN COMPARISONS



1. Adverbs of manner


Adverbs of manner are the largest group of adverbs. Most adverbs of manner are closely related to corresponding adjectives. Although some words can be used as either adjectives or adverbs, in most cases, adverbs of manner are formed by adding ly to the corresponding adjectives.

a. Spelling rules for adding ly
In most cases, ly is simply added to the positive form of the adjective. For example:

Adjective Adverb of Manner   bad   badly   complete   completely   normal   normally   surprising   surprisingly


i. Adjectives ending in ic
However, when the adjective ends in ic, the syllable al is usually added before the ly ending. For example:

Adjective Adverb of Manner   dramatic   dramatically   scientific   scientifically   specific   specifically



ii. Adjectives ending in le
When the adjective ends in le preceded by a consonant, the final e is usually changed to y, to form the ly ending. For example:

Adjective Adverb of Manner   favorable   favorably   humble   humbly   simple   simply


When the adjective ends in le preceded by a vowel, in most cases, ly is simply added to the positive form of the adjective. For example:

Adjective Adverb of Manner   agile   agilely   sole   solely


However, in the case of the adjective whole, the final e is removed before the ending ly is added:

Adjective Adverb of Manner   whole   wholly



iii. Adjectives ending in ll
When the adjective ends in ll, only y is added. For example:

Adjective Adverb of Manner   dull   dully   full   fully   shrill   shrilly



iv. Adjectives ending in ue
When the adjective ends in ue, the final e is usually omitted before the ending ly is added. For example:

Adjective Adverb of Manner   due   duly   true   truly



v. Adjectives ending in y
When the adjective ends in y preceded by a consonant, the y is usually changed to i before the ending ly is added. For example:

Adjective Adverb of Manner   busy   busily   easy   easily   happy   happily


However, in the case of the adjectives shy and sly, ly is simply added to the positive form of the adjective:

Adjective Adverb of Manner   shy   shyly   sly   slyly


When the adjective ends in y preceded by a vowel, in most cases, ly is simply added to the positive form of the adjective. For example:

Adjective Adverb of Manner   coy   coyly   grey   greyly


However, in the case of the adjective gay, y is changed to i before the ending ly is added:

Adjective Adverb of Manner   gay   gaily



See Exercise 1.

It should be noted that while most adverbs which end in ly are adverbs of manner, other types of adverb may also end in ly. For instance, consequently and subsequently are connecting adverbs. The following are adverbs of frequency which are formed by adding ly to the corresponding adjectives.

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