THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS ***
Produced by Audrey Longhurst, Labyrinths and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net
DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS
_A PRACTICAL HANDBOOK FOR THE DYER AND STUDENT_
PRACTICAL COLOURIST AND CHEMIST
_ILLUSTRATED BY FORTY-FOUR ENGRAVINGS_
LONDON SCOTT, GREENWOOD & CO. 19 LUDGATE HILL, E.C.
[_All rights reserved_]
In writing this little book the author believes he is supplying a want which most Students and Dyers of Cotton Fabrics have felt--that of a small handbook clearly describing the various processes and operations of the great industry of dyeing Cotton.
The aim has not been to produce a very elaborate treatise but rather a book of a convenient size, and in order to do so it has been necessary to be brief and to omit many matters that would rightfully find a place in a larger treatise, but the author hopes that nothing of importance has been omitted. The most modern processes have been described in some detail; care has been taken to select those which experience shows to be thoroughly reliable and to give good results.
CHAPTER I. PAGE STRUCTURE AND CHEMISTRY OF THE COTTON FIBRE 1 Action of Alkalies 6 Action of Acids on Cellulose 9 Action of Sulphuric Acid on Cotton 10 Action of Hydrochloric Acid 11 Action of Nitric Acid 12 Action of Oxidising Agents on Cellulose or Cotton 16
SCOURING AND BLEACHING OF COTTON 23 Stains and Damages in Bleached Goods 50
DYEING MACHINERY AND DYEING MANIPULATIONS 53 Hand Dyeing 53 Dyeing Machines 57 Dyeing, Slubbing, Sliver or Carded Cotton and Wool 58 Cop Dyeing 64
THE PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE OF COTTON DYEING 82 (1) Direct Dyeing 85 (2) Direct Dyeing followed by Fixation with Metallic Salts 112 (3) Direct Dyeing followed by Fixation with Developers 128 (4) Direct Dyeing followed by Fixation with Couplers 139 (5) Dyeing on Tannic Mordant 147 (6) Dyeing on Metallic Mordants 156 (7) Production of Colour Direct upon Cotton Fibres 181 (8) Dyeing Cotton by Impregnation with Dye-stuff Solution 198
DYEING UNION (MIXED COTTON AND WOOL) FABRICS 208
DYEING HALF SILK (COTTON-SILK, SATIN) FABRICS 225 Method of Dyeing 225
OPERATIONS FOLLOWING DYEING 239 Washing, Soaping, Drying 239
TESTING OF THE COLOUR OF DYED FABRICS 257
EXPERIMENTAL DYEING AND COMPARATIVE DYE TESTING 262
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
FIG. PAGE 1. Cotton Fibre 5 1A. Cross-section of Cotton Fibre 5 2. Mercerised Cotton Fibre 7 2A. Cross-section of Mercerised Cotton Fibre 7 3. Silkified Cotton Fibre 9 3A. Cross-section of Silkified Cotton Fibre 9 4. Mather & Platt's Low-pressure Bleaching Kier 31 5. Mather & Platt's Yarn-bleaching Kier 49 6. Rectangular Dye-tank 54 7. Round Dye-tub 54 8. Section of Dye-vat 56 9. Delahunty's Dyeing Machine 58 10. Obermaier Dyeing Machine 59 11. Holliday's Yarn-dyeing Machine 60 12. Klauder-Weldon Dyeing Machine 62 13. Graemiger Cop-dyeing Machine 65 14. Graemiger Cop-dyeing Machine 66 15. Beaumont's Cop-dyeing Machine 67 16. Warp-dyeing Machine 70 17. Warp-dyeing Machine 71 18. Dye-jiggers 72 19. Dye-jigger 73 20. Jig Wince 75 21. Cloth-dyeing Machine 76 22. Dye Beck 77 23. Holliday's Machine for Hawking Cloth 78 24. Continuous Dyeing Machine 79 25. Padding Machine 80 26. Padding Machine 81 27. Dye-tub for Paranitroaniline Red 191 28. Padding Machine for Paranitroaniline Red 192 29. Developing Machine for Paranitroaniline Red 194 30. Indigo Dye-vat for Cloth 199 31. Squeezing Rollers 240 32. Yarn-washing Machine 243 33. Dye-house Washing Machine 244 34. Cloth-washing Machine 245 35. Cloth-washing Machine 247 36. Washing and Soaping Vats 248 37. Steaming Cottage 249 38. Steaming and Ageing Chamber 250 39. Hydro-extractor 251 40. Hydro-extractor 252 41. Automatic Yarn-dryer 253 42. Truck Yarn-dryer 254 43. Drying Cylinders 255 44. Experimental Dye-bath 263
STRUCTURE AND CHEMISTRY OF THE COTTON FIBRE.
There is scarcely any subject of so much importance to the bleacher, textile colourist or textile manufacturer as the structure and chemistry of the cotton fibre with which he has to deal. By the term chemistry we mean not only the composition of the fibre substance itself, but also the reactions it is capable of undergoing when brought into contact with various chemical substances--acids, alkalies, salts, etc. These reactions have a very important bearing on the operations of bleaching and dyeing of cotton fabrics.