THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA
WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly
resolved to constitute India into a 1[SOVEREIGN
SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC] and
to secure to all its citizens:
JUSTICE, social, economic and political;
LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and
EQUALITY of status and of opportunity;
and to promote among them all
FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual
and the 2[unity and integrity of the Nation];
IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this twentysixth
day of November, 1949, do HEREBY ADOPT,
ENACT AND GIVE TO OURSELVES THIS
1Subs. by the Constitution (Forty-second Amendment) Act, 1976, s. 2, for "SOVEREIGN
DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC" (w.e.f. 3-1-1977).
2Subs. by s. 2, ibid., for "unity of the Nation" (w.e.f. 3-1-1977).
THE UNION AND ITS TERRITORY
1. (1) India, that is Bharat, shall be a Union of States.
1[(2) The States and the territories thereof shall be as
specified in the First Schedule.]
(3) The territory of India shall comprise-
(a) the territories of the States;
2[(b) the Union territories specified in the First
(c) such other territories as may be acquired.
2. Parliament may by law admit into the Union, or
establish, new States on such terms and conditions as it
32A. [Sikkim to be associated with the Union.] Rep. by the
Constitution (Thirty-sixth Amendment) Act, 1975, s. 5 (w.e.f.
3. Parliament may by law-
(a) form a new State by separation of territory
from any State or by uniting two or more States or
parts of States or by uniting any territory to a part of
(b) increase the area of any State;
(c) diminish the area of any State;
(d) alter the boundaries of any State;
(e) alter the name of any State:
4[Provided that no Bill for the purpose shall be
introduced in either House of Parliament except on the
recommendation of the President and unless, where the
proposal contained in the Bill affects the area, boundaries
Name and territory
of the Union.
Formation of new
alteration of areas,
names of existing
1Subs. by the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956, s. 2, for cl. (2).
2Subs. by s. 2, ibid., for sub-clause (b).
3Article 2A was ins. by the Constitution (Thirty-fifth Amendment) Act, 1974, s. 2 (w.e.f.
4Subs. by the Constitution (Fifth Amendment) Act, 1955, s. 2, for the proviso.
or name of any of the States 1***, the Bill has been referred
by the President to the Legislature of that State for
expressing its views thereon within such period as may
be specified in the reference or within such further period
as the President may allow and the period so specified or
allowed has expired.]
2[Explanation I.-In this article, in clauses (a) to (e),
"State'' includes a Union territory, but in the proviso,
"State'' does not include a Union territory.
Explanation II.-The power conferred on Parliament
by clause (a) includes the power to form a new State or
Union territory by uniting a part of any State or Union
territory to any other State or Union territory.]
4. (1) Any law referred to in article 2 or article 3 shall
contain such provisions for the amendment of the First
Schedule and the Fourth Schedule as may be necessary
to give effect to the provisions of the law and may also
contain such supplemental, incidental and consequential
provisions (including provisions as to representation in
Parliament and in the Legislature or Legislatures of the
State or States affected by such law) as Parliament may
(2) No such law as aforesaid shall be deemed to be
an amendment of this Constitution for the purposes of
THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA
(Part I.-The Union and its territory.-Arts. 3-4.)
Laws made under
articles 2 and 3 to
provide for the
amendment of the
First and the
1The words and letters "specified in Part A or Part B of the First Schedule" omitted by
the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956, s. 29 and Sch.
2Ins. by the Constitution (Eighteenth Amendment) Act, 1966, s. 2.
5. At the commencement of this Constitution, every
person who has his domicile in the territory of India
(a) who was born in the territory of India; or
(b) either of whose parents was born in the territory
of India; or